Anak-Anak Tahu Apa Yang Anda Dapatkan Tergantung Pada Apa Yang Anda Berikan

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Anak-Anak Tahu Apa Yang Anda Dapatkan Tergantung Pada Apa Yang Anda Berikan

Anak-anak semuda 5 memiliki pemahaman yang bernuansa keadilan, menurut sebuah studi baru.

Penelitian menunjukkan bahwa mereka memasukkan keprihatinan pasar — ​​gagasan bahwa apa yang Anda dapatkan selaras dengan apa yang Anda berikan atau tawarkan — ke dalam pengambilan keputusan mereka dan semakin bertambah seiring bertambahnya usia.

Beberapa orang berpikir bahwa anak-anak adalah egois — mereka ingin mendapatkan barang untuk diri mereka sendiri. Orang lain menganggap anak-anak secara alami altruistik — mereka peduli untuk membantu orang lain. Kebanyakan orang berpikir anak-anak adalah keduanya.

“Caranya adalah mengetahui kapan dan bagaimana menyeimbangkan kepentingan diri dan kepedulian terhadap orang lain — apa yang tepat dalam situasi yang berbeda,” kata Margaret Echelbarger, lulusan doktor psikologi Universitas Michigan baru-baru ini.

Mempelajari bagaimana anak-anak terlibat dalam berbagai jenis pertukaran menjelaskan asal-usul perilaku ini, serta kursus perkembangan mereka.

"Ini pada gilirannya memberitahu kita lebih banyak tentang diri kita sebagai orang dewasa," kata Echelbarger.

Penelitian baru, yang muncul di Perkembangan Anak, termasuk 195 anak-anak usia 5-10 dan 60 orang dewasa membantu pemberi mendistribusikan stiker kepada teman-teman. Mereka membagikan stiker secara merata di antara teman-teman ketika penawarannya sama, tetapi tidak sama ketika penawaran yang berbeda dibuat.

Ada saat-saat ketika para peserta membagikan lebih banyak stiker kepada teman-teman yang menawarkan lebih banyak uang, yang berarti anak-anak — saat mereka lanjut usia — bersedia untuk meninggalkan norma yang sama untuk dibagikan. Lebih khusus lagi, anak-anak yang lebih besar membagikan lebih banyak stiker kepada teman-teman yang membayar lebih banyak bahkan ketika teman yang lain ingin membayar tetapi tidak bisa.Balita seperti keadilan sampai ada kekurangan kue

"Temuan ini sangat menarik mengingat eksposur terbatas anak-anak muda untuk pasar / instruksi ekonomi," kata Echelbarger. "Kami menunjukkan bahwa, sejak usia muda, anak-anak mengembangkan pemahaman tentang 'aturan' pertukaran pasar."

Echelbarger dan rekan juga menemukan bahwa anak-anak peka terhadap alasan yang mendasari berbagai tawaran. Anak-anak menghukum penerima menolak untuk membayar lebih dari penerima yang bersedia tetapi tidak mampu membayar, katanya.

Temuan ini konsisten dengan penelitian sebelumnya bahwa anak-anak menggabungkan keprihatinan ekuitas, seperti prestasi dan kebutuhan, dalam keputusan distribusi mereka, kata para peneliti.

Penulis lain berasal dari University of Michigan dan dari University of Wisconsin.

Sumber: University of Michigan

Buku terkait:

Knife Children (seri Pisau Berbagi)

terima kasihPenulis: Lois McMaster Bujold
Binding: Kindle Edition
Format: E-book Kindle
Studio: Spectrum Literary Agency, Inc.
Label: Spectrum Literary Agency, Inc.
Publisher: Spectrum Literary Agency, Inc.
Produsen: Spectrum Literary Agency, Inc.

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Ulasan Editorial: Lakewalker Barr Foxbrush returns from two years of patrolling the bitter wilds of Luthlia against the enigmatic, destructive entities called malices, only to find that thesecret daughter he’d left behind in the hinterland of Oleana has disappeared from her home after a terrible accusation. The search for her will call on more of Barr’s mind and heart than just his mage powers, as he tries to balance his mistakes of the past and his most personal duties to the future. A stand-alone story set in the world of The Sharing Knife.

“Bujold is not just a master of plot, she is a master of
- SF Site
Bujold's "work remains among the most enjoyable and
rewarding in contemporary fiction.”
- Publishers Weekly
“Bujold couldn't characterize badly if threatened with a firing
- Booklist
“A superb craftsman and stylist, Ms. Bujold is well on her
way to becoming one of the great voices of speculative
- Rave Reviews
"Boy, can she write!"
- Anne McCaffrey
“Bujold has a gift.”
- Chicago Sun Times

Berbagi Nature®: Kegiatan Kesadaran Alam untuk Semua Usia

terima kasihPenulis: Joseph Cornell
Binding: Paperback
Pencipta (s):
  • Richard Louv

Studio: Peneliti Kejelasan Kristal
Label: Peneliti Kejelasan Kristal
Publisher: Peneliti Kejelasan Kristal
Produsen: Peneliti Kejelasan Kristal

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Ulasan Editorial:

Berbagi Alam dengan Anak-anak sold more than half a million copies and sparked a worldwide revolution in nature education. Now that classic has been rewritten, with added new activities―and combined with Sharing Nature with Children II (a treasury of some of Joseph's best-loved nature games for children and adults) in one complete volume: Sharing Nature.

Upon its release, Sharing Nature quickly received six prestigious awards:
Winner, Silver Nautilus Award in the Animals & Nature category
Winner, Grand Prize: Indie Book Awards in the Non-Fiction category
Winner, Indie Book Award in the Science/Nature/Environment category
Winner, Indie Book Award in the Parenting/Family category
Winner, Silver Evergreen Medal in the Nature Conservation category
Winner, Green Book Festival Award in the How-To category

Shortlisted, 2016 Green Earth Book Award in the Young Adult Nonfiction category
Finalist, 2016 INDIEFAB Book of the Year Award in the Nature category

Not just a book, this is a powerful approach to nature education. Fans of the original work will be excited by this new version of their beloved nature handbook, which incorporates the author's latest insights. (Cornell drew upon a wealth of experience to significantly revise and expand this book.) New readers―including outdoor enthusiasts of all types and nature-based schools and instructors―will be enthralled by this phenomenal teaching tool.

Essential, easy to use,
Sharing Nature is nature awareness made simple. It makes experiencing nature fun. An extraordinary resource for anyone who would like to get in touch with the land, trees, and mountains. This book is a treasure trove of games and activities that tap into our natural curiosity, imagination, and wonder. Give a friend or a child an experience of Nature and wildlife that he will remember the rest of his life.

Sharing Nature takes readers beyond their intellects and into their hearts, where true understanding and appreciation take place. The wildly popular nature activities in this book arouse a sense of mystery, and engender quiet attention, observation, and the possibility of revelation.

New nature games―and old favorites―and Cornell's typically insightful commentary makes this new and quintessential version of this special classic even more valuable to nature enthusiasts worldwide. In page after page of innovative activities, Cornell's unique blend of knowledge and warmth creates a contagious atmosphere for learning. Enjoy the color interior with 250 photos offering comprehensive easy-to-follow instructions.

The Sharing Nature movement has expanded to countries all over the globe. Cornell and his work have been recommended by the Boy Scouts of America, the American Camping Association, the National Audubon Society, Japan's national school system, and many others.

Cornell also introduces his remarkable technique of Flow Learning, showing how to match nature activities to the interest and energy levels of participants and children, and to organize them in a way that works, placing them in thematic sequence to ensure a genuinely uplifting experience.

Berbagi Iman Paskah dengan Anak-anak: Membantu Anak-Anak Mengamati Masa Prapaskah dan Merayakan Paskah

terima kasihPenulis: Carolyn C. Brown
Binding: Paperback
Studio: Abingdon Tekan
Label: Abingdon Tekan
Publisher: Abingdon Tekan
Produsen: Abingdon Tekan

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Ulasan Editorial:

Carolyn Brown has done it again! As with all of her books, Brown writes clearly and helpfully, with conviction and passion for what to share and how to share one's faith with children. Sharing the Easter Faith with Children is theologically sound, biblically focused, educationally on target, and developmentally appropriate. It should be required reading for every parent, educator, and pastor who wants to communicate and celebrate the Easter faith with children. Brown packs a lot of practical suggestions, insights, and activities into this very readable resource. I am confident children will mature in their understanding and affirmation of the Easter faith when they have been nurtured in families and congregations that take seriously what Brown offers. --Donald Griggs, Author of Teaching Today’s Teachers to Teach

It is easy to share the Christmas story and faith with children. The story is beautiful and lends itself well to pageants and other celebratory events for children. It is not so easy to share the Easter story and faith with children because the message and images are complex. Many parents have trouble articulating what Easter means to them personally much less answering their children’s questions. In many congregations children are featured in palm parades on Palm Sunday, but they are not specifically planned for at other Holy Week services. When schools schedule an Easter break, many families go away and thus unintentionally bypass the whole Easter message for years.

This book explores what the Easter message can mean to children as they grow up. The author helps congregations and families share the Easter message with their children and include the children meaningfully in Lent, Holy Week and Easter observances. Included are materials for children from birth (in the church nursery) to age 12. Also included are reproducible pages to create a booklet for parents.

The first section of the book describes the particular parts of the Easter faith that are important to children at different ages and comments on the biblical Easter texts from a child’s point of view. The second part of the book works through the Lenten season, describing ways congregations can include children and providing program and worship plans, including:
*Lenten disciplines for children and their families
*Ash Wednesday
*Celebrating Palm Sunday or looking ahead on Passion Sunday
*Maundy Thursday: Recalling the Last Supper
*Keeping Good Friday
*The church-sponsored Easter Egg Hunt
*Easter Sunday Morning

Another part of the book offers help to leaders who want to share the content with teachers, parents, or committees. Also included is a comprehensive list of related resources.

This carefully researched and well-grounded, practical resource from a highly regarded Christian educator will strengthen your educational ministry with children and support parents as they shape the faith of their children.

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